Born in Bury, Lancashire, Courtney spent the early part of his youth football career with Manchester City, where he remained until 2013. He joined Carlisle United in the same year, initially on a one-month deal; however, after making his debut in an FA Cup victory over Brentford Courtney signed a 2.5 year deal to remain at Brunton Park.
Leaving Carlisle in November 2015, Courtney signed for National League North side Chorley in March 2016. After only a handful of games he joined Stockport County, where he played the 2016-17 season. Glossop North End was his next destination, playing 50 games for the Derbyshire side in 2017/18.
For 2018/19, Courtney returned to Chorley, where he was a key figure in their eventual promotion to the Vanarama National League, defeating Spennymoor Town in the play-off final. Courtney remained at Victory Park for the following season but, following Chorley’s eventual relegation, opted to head to Shropshire to become part of Gavin Cowan’s plans for the 2020/21 campaign.